## The Mathematics Undergraduate Degree (and options) |

### Table of Contents

- WHY STUDY MATHEMATICS
- MATHEMATICS AT WSU
- UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS
- WHAT DO GRADUATES WITH A MATHEMATICS MAJOR DO?
- GETTING STARTED
- CRITERIA FOR CERTIFICATION
- BACHELOR OF SCIENCE DEGREE
- MATHEMATICS (general requirements)
- MATHEMATICS SECONDARY EDUCATION (general requirements)
- GENERAL STUDIES - MATHEMATICS EDUCATION (general requirements)

- OPTIONS
- Actuarial Sciences
- Applied Statistics
- Computational Mathematics Option
- Mathematical Modeling
- Operations Research
- Secondary Mathematics Teaching
- Theoretical Mathematics

- SPECIAL OPPORTUNITIES
- Mathematics 499, Special Problems
- Undergraduate Research
- Scholarships and Awards
- Undergraduate Bulletin Board
- Undergraduate Teaching Assistantships
- Tutoring
- College Modeling Contest
- Putnam Competition
- Hacker Reading Room

- OTHER SOURCES OF INFORMATION
- FACULTY

You may be considering a major in mathematics. Maybe you've already made the plunge. In either case, you must have enjoyed mathematics and now would probably like to learn more. These could be reasons enough.

But there are other reasons - good reasons - for choosing mathematics as your undergraduate major.

Mathematics is the oldest and most fundamental of the sciences, with a history that goes back at least four thousand years. Many of the oldest mathematical ideas are still being studied and are in constant use.

But mathematics is also a dynamic, rapidly growing subject that sprouts new ideas, new methods,and new applications every day. Major long-standing problems are being solved one after another, and new ones are being identified all the time. Many of the most exciting developments in the "high tech" revolutions depend on mathematical discoveries made since you were born - maybe since you entered high school!

And, in recent years, the use of mathematics has been expanding not only in its traditional territory - the physical sciences and technology - but also into the biological and health sciences, the social and management sciences, and even the humanities.

Of course, the computer has been a close partner of mathematics in many recent developments, but mathematics continues to have its own flavor and insights, and goes right on making its own distinctive contributions.

There are many ways of becoming a part of all this - opportunities that can lead to enjoyable, productive, and satisfying careers. Declaring a major in mathematics is a good first step.

It should also be said that a major in mathematics can be part of a liberal education** par excellence**, and in particular can provide a solid base for further study in many other fields.

For most of a century there has been a separate department of mathematics at WSU, where a mathematics major, a master's degree in mathematics and (since 1959) a doctorate in mathematics have been offered. About 1970, the department decided that, while continuing to support "pure" mathematics, it should put greater emphasis on "applied" mathematics. Its present name, Department of Pure and Applied Mathematics, was adopted to symbolize that decision.

Separate programs in astronomy and in statistics are closely associated with the Department of Pure and Applied Mathematics, but are described in other documents.

The faculty of the department consists of about 40 people. ( A current roster appears later.) All of them have Ph.D.'s and are active scholars as well as committed teachers. Most of them are known nationally for their contributions to the mathematical world - for their research, for example, or for their involvement's in various projects in support of mathematics and mathematics education. Some members of the mathematics faculty have held high offices in national professional organizations.

At any one time some members of the faculty will be away on leave at other institutions; but at the same time WSU has a steady stream of visiting mathematicians from many parts of the world, and one of the special opportunities that go with being associated with the department is that of learning from these informative visitors.

There are usually between thirty-five and forty **graduate** students in the department. Each of them is studying for a master's degree or Ph. D. or both. (For details about the graduate degree programs in mathematics at WSU, see the **WSU GRADUATE BULLETIN** or the departmental publications, **GRADUATE STUDY IN MATHEMATICS** and **A GUIDE FOR THE GRADUATE STUDENT IN MATHEMATICS AT WASHINGTON STATE UNIVERSITY**. With a few exceptions, graduate students hold graduate teaching assistantships, which provide financial support for their study along with chances to acquire or improve skills for teaching undergraduate mathematics; but teaching assistants rarely teach courses taken by certified mathematics majors.

The number of **undergraduate** students majoring in mathematics fluctuates considerably. It is now about sixty, with another sixty or so in the mathematics-education program, which is designed to prepare future teachers with a concentration in mathematics. A considerable number also have second majors; recent examples of majors that have been paired with mathematics include physics, computer science, economics, music, biological sciences, and physical education. The undergraduate students come from all parts of the state, many other states, and some foreign countries, and study mathematics for many reasons. Many of them are excellent scholars with outstanding records. They have been amply represented in the Honors Program and are involved in many student activities.

The office and facilities of the Department of Pure and Applied Mathematics are located in Neill Hall. There is a directory of personal offices on the wall in the foyer and a directory with office hours located outside the main office. This will include the faculty and teaching assistant offices, the departmental administrative office (Neill 103) the minicomputer laboratory (Neill 03), a microcomputer laboratory (Neill 101W) and a remote observing room (Neill 106W).

**WHAT DO GRADUATES WITH A MATHEMATICS MAJOR DO?**

You sometimes hear people ask, "What can a person do with a mathematics degree except teach?" The implied answer to this question, namely "Nothing", is dead wrong. Being a good elementary or secondary teacher is a noble thing, and this country desperately needs more people who are really qualified to teach mathematics. But, as we have suggested, there are many other possibilities for a mathematics graduate. Here is a balanced sample of the positions and employers, teaching or not, held by people who have earned a bachelor's degree in mathematics at WSU recently:

- air traffic controller (FAA)
- attorney (Richland)
- computer analyst/programmer (Washington State Department of Transportation)
- computer programmer/administrator (Idaho County Nursing Home)
- consultant (Rand Corporation)
- consulting actuary (Howard Johnson & Company)
- engineers (Pacific Northwest Bell & Rockwell Hanford)
- graduate students (University of Texas, University of California-Davis & University of Illinois)
- high school teachers (Tacoma, Pullman, Puyallup, Medical Lake & Monroe, WA)
- junior resident/physician (Indiana University Medical Center)
- mathematics teacher (The American School of Asuncion)
- new student programs coordinator (SMU)
- officers (U.S. Navy & U.S. Air Force)
- owner/president (environmental consulting firm)
- program assistant (WSU)
- programmer/analysts (Boeing Computer Systems & Computer Sciences Corp.)
- programmers (IBM & Heuristima Corp.)
- purchasing agent (Arizona Software Center)
- scientific programmer, WSU Statistical Services
- senior systems programmers (Idaho Power Co. & Old National Bank)
- software quality engineers (Teltone, Boeing Aerospace Co. & ITT/Federal Electric Corp.)
- student advisor (Institute of International Education)
- system programmer (Puget Sound Naval Shipyard)
- systems analyst (Texas Instruments)
- teacher (Bethel Junior High, Bethel, WA)
- technical aide (Boeing)
- technical support (Boeing Computer Services & Rolm Corporation)

On the following pages you will find the information you need to declare and carry out your program as a Mathematics major. As soon as possible after taking Math 171, 172 and 220 you should certify as a math major. The instructions for doing this are given on the next page. You will then be assigned to an advisor within the department. He, or she, will help you plan your program so you complete both your general requirements and the specific requirements for whatever math option you choose. Information on all the options, as well as the "core" courses common to all math majors, is given.

Students are strongly encouraged to select and follow one of the options. Modern mathematics is a huge field. It will help your possibilities for getting a job, or getting into graduate school, if you do some specializing during your undergraduate career. The types of things you can do with each option are described in the pages which follow. Notice especially that some faculty members who can give you more information are listed. Your advisor can also be very helpful to you as you consider which option to follow.

The following provides Criteria for Certification information in Mathematics or General Studies - Math Education

- Applications for certification are accepted at any time during fall and spring semesters. Decisions are made within ten working days of receipt of application. Application forms are available in the Mathematics Department office (Neill 103). Students must also pick-up a
*Certification Card*at the Student Advising and Learning Center (SALC) in Lighty room 260. - Applications are evaluated and certification decided, by a faculty committee.
- Applicants must have an overall grade point average of at least 2.00.
- The mathematics core consists of Math 171, Math 172, and Math 220. This core (or its equivalent for transfer students)
before applying for certification.*must be completed* - Students with at least a 2.50 grade point average in the mathematics core will be certified automatically. Those with less than a 2.00 GPA in the mathematics core will normally not be certified. Others will be considered on a case by case basis.
- The department chairperson considers appeals on certification decisions.
- Students who are denied certification may reapply after completing at least twelve more semester hours, whereupon decisions are based on grades in mathematics, science, and computer science courses; cumulative gradepoint average and grade patterns; and a personal interview.
- Certified students whose cumulative grade point average, or grade point average in mathematics courses numbered 171 and above, falls below 2.00 for two consecutive semesters, or who are academically deficient, are subject to decertification.
- Applications for recertification are handled in the same manner as certification applications for those previously denied
- Women and minorities are encouraged to apply. Special consideration will be given to affirmative action candidates.

Name:_______________________________________ Date: ______________________

Mailing Address:________________________________________________________

Permanent Address : ____________________________________________________

Local Phone: _____________________ Permanent Phone: ________________________

Are you currently a WSU student ? YES ____ NO ____

ID# _____________________________

Applying for certification in: ____ Mathematics

____ Mathematics/Secondary Education

____ General Studies/Mathematics Education

Will this be a second major? yes ____ no ____

If yes, what is your other major? ___________________________________

Will this be a second degree? yes ____ no ____

If yes, what is your other degree? ___________________________________

Have you been denied certification or been decertified in one of these areas before at WSU?

yes ____ no ____ If yes, please explain: _________________________________

List previous Colleges and Universities attended, the year last attended, credits (sem. hours) and gpa for each.

List grades in mathematics core courses:

- Math 171 - Calculus I
- Math 172- Calculus II
- Math 220 - Linear Algebra

If the above courses were taken, please list the school at which they wre completed, the credit in semester hours and the course designation, if not at WSU.

Are there any special factors that should be considered: (Minority and affirmative action candidates are invited to identify themselves.) Attach additional information if needed.

Return completed form, your academic file/transcripts and a certification card (pick up
card *at* SALC, in Lighty 260) to Lynda Ballard in the Department of Pure and Applied
Mathematics (Neill 103).

Undergraduate training in Mathematics is provided at WSU in the following options:

- Actuarial Sciences
- Applied Statistics
- Computational Mathematics
- Mathematical Modeling (previously Applied Analysis)
- Operations Research
- Secondary Mathematics Teaching
- Theoretical Mathematics (previously Core Mathematics)

Students are required to declare one of these options, and to follow the curricular provisions of the chosen option, as approved by the student's advisor. Students for whom special unusual circumstances apply may take a coherent list of courses, recommended and approved by the advisor, that may not be specifically within one of the stated optional areas. Students should, accordingly, choose an optional area as quickly as it is reasonable to do so. Normally, this will occur by the end of the first semester of the junior year.

There is a core of requirements common to all mathematical sciences options, as provided in the attached checklist. Optional requirements beyond the core required of all math majors follow the descriptions of the options.

**
Sample
Schedule of Studies - Math Majors
All Options
**

**Freshman Year**

*Fall*

Math 171[N] (4 credits)

Gen Ed 110[A] (3)

Engl 101 ([W]) (3)

Bio Sci[B] (4)

*Spring*

Math 172 (4)

Gen Ed 111[A] (3)

Cpt S 150 or (4)

two of Cpt. S 153, 203, 251

Soc Sci[S,K] (3)

Sp Com 102[C] (3)

**Sophomore Year**

*Fall*

Math 220 (2)

Math 273 (2)

Phys 201[P] (4)

Hum Elec[G,H] (3)

Elective (3)

*Spring*

Math 315 (3)

Math 360 (3)

Intercult[I,G,K] (3)

Science Elective (4)

Math 300 (3)

**Junior Year**

*Fall*

Math 420 (3)

Math Elective (3)

Engl 402 [W] (3)

Electives (6)

*Spring*

Math 421 (3)

Math Elective (3)

Hum or Soc Sci Elec [G,H,S,K,U] (3)

Electives (6)

**Senior Year**

*Fall*

Math 401[M] (3)

Math Elective (3)

Hum or Soc Sci Elec [G,H,S,K] (3)

Electives (6)

*Spring*

Math 402 (3)

Math Elective (3)

Hum or Soc Sci Elec [G,H,S,K] (3)

Electives (6)

**Actuarial Sciences** Option Description

Actuaries are professionals with a specialized education in mathematics and business who are employed in connection with insurance and other financial security programs. Actuarial responsibilities involve research, planning, forecasting, and decision-making as regards risk and contingency in insurance programs. Actuaries use applied mathematics to define, analyze and solve complex business and social problems. They apply their knowledge to all aspects of insurance and pension operations and are found wherever insurance-related problems arise. The actuary's primary work is to design insurance programs that will meet specific social needs and operate on a sound financial basis. The programs may involve life insurance, health insurance, pensions and other employee benefit plans, property and liability insurance, or social insurance (such as social security).

To become a Fellow in the Society of Actuaries, it is necessary to pass a series of actuarial exams. The entire process of becoming an actuarial Fellow can take 3 to 7 years of study and work experience beyond the bachelor's degree. To prepare for the first three actuarial exams, a student needs a substantial background in calculus, probability, statistics, numerical analysis, and operations research. Additional courses in economics, business, insurance, and computer science provide further preparation and background for later exams. However, even though their training is basically in mathematics, practicing actuaries must deal with people with greatly varying educational backgrounds and therefore must be able to explain and communicate complicated concepts effectively. Communication skills, both written and oral, are essential for the success of any Actuary.

*Job Market and Salary Information.* In the past, the number of actuarial positions has always exceeded the supply of actuaries, and this shortage is expected to continue through at least 2000 because of the projected growth of the insurance industry. Thus, employment prospects are very good. Annual salaries for actuaries compare favorably with those of other professionals with comparable education and experience. According to recent salary surveys, in 1990 new actuarial fellows averaged $63,000 annually whereas actuarial fellows with five years of experience averaged $80,000. Starting salaries in 1990 for actuarial trainees who had passed 60 credits were primarily in the $30,000 range. For those who successfully pass subsequent exams, increases are rapid. Along with salaries, most actuaries receive excellent fringe benefits from their employers.

*Suggestions for the Major in the Actuarial Science Option.* For graduation and degree requirements, see the current college catalog. As indicated above, a broad range of training is needed to become a skilled actuary. Besides the basic mathematical training, supporting skills are essential for the actuary. This program should include substantial course work in:

- computer science;
- economics and business;
- insurance;
- developing communication skills.

**
Sample
Schedule of Studies Actuarial Sciences Option
**

**Freshman Year**

*Fall*

Math 171[N] (4 credits)

Gen Ed 110[A] (3)

Engl 101 ([W]) (3)

Bio Sci[B] (4)

Econ 101[S] (3)

*Spring*

Math 172 (4)

Gen Ed 111[A] (3)

Cpt S 150 or (4)

two of Cpt. S 153, 203, 251

Econ 102[S] (3)

**Sophomore Year**

*Fall*

Math 273 (2)

Math 300 (3)

Phys 201[P] (4)

Hum Elec[G,H] (3)

Math 220 (3)

Elective (3)

*Spring*

Math 315 (3)

Math 360 (3)

Intercult [I,G,K] (3)

Science Elective (4)

Math 300 (3)

**Junior Year**

*Fall*

Math 420 (3)

Math 443 (3)

Engl 402[W] (3)

Math 364 (3)

Acctg 230 (3)

*Spring*

Math 421[M] (3)

Math 456 (3)

Hum or Soc Sci Elec [G,H,S,K] (3)

Acctg 231 (3)

Math 340 (3)

Bus Law 210 (3)

**Senior Year**

*Fall*

Math 401[M] (3)

Math 448 (3)

Hum or Soc Sci Elec [G,H,S,K] (3)

Ins 320 (3)

Elective (3)

*Spring*

Math 402[M] (3)

Math 464 (3)

Hum or Soc Sci Elec [G,H,S,K] (3)

Econ 301 (3)

Econ 411 (3)

Math 398 (1)

**Actuarial Sciences Option Requirements**

Students majoring in the Actuarial Science Option must have a broad range of courses.

Courses required in addition to the Core Departmental Requirements include: Math/Stat 360, Math 364, Math/Stat 443, Math/Stat 456 and Math 448.

In order to prepare for additional Actuarial exams, the following courses are also strongly recommended: Math/Stat 423 or Stat 530, Math 340, Math 464, Econ 101-102, Business Law 210, Acctg 230-231, Econ 301, Ins 320, and Econ 411 (see advisor for checklist).

**Applied Statistics** Option Description

The services of statisticians are in demand in a wide range of human endeavors. The trend is toward more extensive use of statistical analysis in more and more areas, thus making this option attractive because of the number and variety of employment prospects. For example, statisticians are needed in such diverse fields as the physical, biological and health sciences; engineering; economics; business administration; agriculture, psychology; sociology; actuarial science; law; and public policy. Business, industry, government and educational institutions all employ statisticians.

Applied statisticians usually work with data collected by other investigators. They also help with the design and analysis of experiments or surveys. Because the statistician is involved in such diverse projects, it is wise to develop skills in the area of intended application (such as the social or biological sciences, business, economics, etc.). Facility with the computer and a knowledge of numerical analysis are equally important. Communication skills, both written and oral, are an essential part of the success of any statistician. Finally the statistician should have a wide enough education to understand the institutional and organizational context within which he or she works.

*Job Market and Salary Information:* As the computer continues to make inroads into new areas and as these areas become more quantified and more data are collected, the services of the statistician become indispensable. Thus the market for statisticians looks very promising. Starting salaries for statisticians holding a Bachelor's Degree are between $25,000 - $30,000 and between $30,000-$40,000 for those with a Ph.D.

*Suggestions for the Major in the Applied Statistics Option:* For graduation and degree requirements, see the current college catalog. As implied in the paragraphs above, besides the basic training in statistics, supporting skills are essential for the statistician. The program should include:

- substantial course work with statistical software with some numerical analysis recommended;
- substantial course work in at least one field of application such as physical, biological or health science; engineering; economics; business administration; or agriculture.

Because communication skills are critical, if the candidate needs work in either oral or written presentations the program should include extra courses in this area.

*Resource People:* In the Mathematics Department: Jacroux, Jandhyala, Saunders. In other departments on campus: Alldredge, Evans, and Gaskins in Biometrics; Wang, Ahn and Fotopoulis in Business Administration

**
Sample Schedule of Studies - Applied Statistics Option
**

PLEASE NOTE: This schedule of studies assumes the student has had two years of a foreign language in high school. Otherwise, a year of a foreign language must be added to this program.

**Freshman Year**

*Fall*

Math 171 (4 credits)

Gen Ed 110 (3)

Engl 101 ([W]) (3)

Bio Sci 102 (4)

*Spring*

Math 172 (4)

Gen Ed 111 (3)

Cpt S 203 (3)

Soc Sci (4 or 3)

Speech 102 (3)

**Sophomore Year**

*Fall*

Math 273 (2)

Math 300 (3)

Phys 201 (4)

Hum Elec (3)

Foreign Language or Elective (4 or 3)

Math 220 (3)

*Spring*

Math 315 (3)

Math 360 (3)

Intercult (3)

Science (4 or 3)

Foreign Language or Elective (4 or 3)

**Junior Year**

*Fall*

Math 401 (3)

Math/Stat 443 (3)

Engl 402 (3)

Science (3)

Math 364 (3)

*Spring*

Math 402 (3)

Math/Stat 444 (3)

Hum Elec (3)

Stat 442 & CptS 250 (6)

Math 398 (3)

**Senior Year**

*Fall*

Math 420 (3)

Math 417 (3)

Hist 381 (3)

DecS 418 & Stat 530 (6)

*Spring*

Math 421 (3)

Math 464 (3)

Hist 382 or Soc Sci or Hum (3)

Math 448 & ??? (6)

**Applied Statistics Options Requirements**

In addition to the Core Departmental Requirements, students in Applied Statistics are also required to take:

Math/Stat 360, Math/Stat 442, Math/Stat 443, Math/Stat 444, and Math 417.

Courses which are also strongly recommended include DecS 418, CptS 250, Math 364, Math 448, Math 464, Stat 530 and at least one additional Stat elective.

See Advisor for Checklist

**Computational Mathematics** Option Description

Computational Mathematics provides the glue between models of physical, biological, economics, or engineering systems and the mathematical and statistical methods appropriate for their analysis. A practitioner in this area of mathematics, therefore, needs to be able to communicate effectively, sometimes across several disciplines, and also should have broad computational experience as well as a good grounding in mathematics, numerical analysis, and statistics, and most certainly a knowledge of computer programming skills.

*Job Market Information:* Computer use is widespread in industry, government and private laboratories, and business. Most larger organizations have recognized the need for persons with computational mathematics backgrounds to make effective use of computers. Common entry job titles are research analyst, systems analyst, mathematical analyst or operations analyst. After acquiring on-the-job experience, many of these people move into engineering or project management positions.

*Salary Information:* Starting salaries are usually in the range of $25,000-$35,000.

*Suggestions for the Major in the Computational Mathematics Option:* A double major or a minor in computer science would be desirable. Participation in the Work Study Internship program (Cpt S 498) or summer employment involving computer experience is strongly recommended.

With the spread of remote computer terminals on campus, easy access to some of the most powerful computing capability in the Northwest is now available.

Graduation and degree requirements are given in the current college catalog. A sample schedule of studies is on the back.

*Resource People:* In the Mathematics Department: Ariyawansa, Barnes, K. Cooper, S. Cooper, LoFaro, Manoranjan, Mifflin, Millham, Nazareth, Pate, and Watkins.

**
Sample Schedule of Studies - Math Majors
Computational Mathematics Option
**

**Freshman Year**

*Fall*

Math 171 ([N]) (4 credits)

Cpt S 203 (3)

Gen Ed 110 ([A]) (3)

Engl 101 ([W]) (3)

Humanities Elective ([H], [G]) (3)

*Spring*

Math 172 (4)

Bio Sci 102 ([B]) (4)

Gen Ed 111 ([A]) (3)

Intercultural Elective ([G], [I], or [K]) (3)

**Sophomore Year**

*Fall*

Math 220 (2)

Math 273 (2)

Math 300 (3)

Phys 201 ([P]) (4)

CptS 150 (4)

Elective ([G], [H], [S], [K], [U]) (3)

*Spring*

Math 315 (3)

Math 364 (3)

Phys 202 ([P]) (4)

Elective ([G], [H], [S], [K], [U]) (3)

Elective (3)

**Junior Year**

*Fall*

Math 420 (3)

Math 448 (3)

Engl 402 (3)

Hist 381 or 382 ([S]) (3)

Elective (3)

*Spring*

Math 421 (3)

Math 418 or 464 (3)

Math 398 (3)

Math/Stat 360 or 443 (3)

Elective ([G], [H], [S], [K], [U]) (3)

Elective (3)

**Senior Year**

*Fall*

Math 401 (3)

Math 440, 417, or 464 (3)

Electives (9)

*Spring*

Math 402 ([M]) (3)

Math 440 or 418 (3)

Electives (9)

- In addition to the courses required for the Major in Mathematics, the Computational Mathematics Option requires: Cpt S 150 or 251, Math 364, Math 448; two of Math 417, 418, 440, 464.
- It is strongly recommended that some of the electives be used to obtain a Computer Science minor. A suggested combination for this is: Cpt S 250, Math 216, Cpt S 317, Cpt S 350, Cpt S 355; one of Cpt S 440, 442, 450, 451.

Students taking the Computational Math option are required to take:

- CptS 150 or 251
- CptS 203
- Math 364, and Math 448.

Additionally, they are required to take two of:

- Math 417
- Math 418
- Math 440
- Math 464

See Advisor for Checklist

**Mathematical Modeling** Option Description
(Previously Applied Analysis Option)

Many areas of mathematics have recently begun to emphasize applications to real-world problems. There is a growing realization among non-mathematicians that analytical mathematical models are valuable tools to improve our understanding of diverse phenomena. The use of mathematical models cuts across the spectrum of engineering and the physical, biological and social sciences. In consequence, there are many career opportunities for Mathematical Modelers at all levels of training, from BS. to Ph.D.. These opportunities are to be found in academic institutions; in business and industry, such as manufacturing, marketing, aerospace, agriculture and communications; in government and private laboratories, agencies and research centers, such as the Argonne, Brookhaven and Los Alamos National Laboratories, the National Bureau of Standards, the Naval Research Labs, and the Bell Laboratories.

*Job Market Information:* Many of the job opportunities at the B.S. level require training in computer applications of mathematics. Others require background in specialized subjects such as optimization or applied statistics. Most employers are searching for employees who have broad training in applied and applicable mathematics with exposure to natural sciences or engineering. The program of study for the Modeling Option includes these various elements.

*Salary Information:* Salaries of professionals trained in Mathematical Modeling are variable and commensurate with experience, training and demand. Many companies pay higher salaries to employees with special skills or expertise. An entry-level salary of $30,000 at the B.S. level would be typical.

Science and technology will play an ever-increasing role in our society. As this state of affairs evolves, applied mathematicians willing to pursue careers with industries and businesses in the technological forefront will be in demand and will be compensated accordingly.

*Suggestions for the Major in the Mathematical Modeling Option:* Students pursuing the Mathematical Modeling option should expect a broad training in applied mathematics. This training should include exposure to practical computer programming and familiarity with a variety of mathematical computer software packages. Modeling students at WSU have access to a variety of computer systems. The campus mainframe computer is a vector processor IBM 3090, a very large state-of-the-art system. The central computing facility of the Mathematics Department has five DEC System 5000/R4000 machines, three DEC Axp machines, two VAX computers, and an assortment of SUN and Silicon Graphics workstations. The Department supports many mathematical programming packages, including the IMSL library, Mathematica, Maple V and MATLAB.

Graduation and degree requirements are described in the current college catalog. It is also strongly recommended the Modeling option students complete a minor in an applied area outside of mathematics. Suitable minors include, among others, business administration, finance, biology, chemistry, engineering, economics, forestry, geology or physics.

*Resource People:* In the Mathematics Department: Barnes, Bushaw, K. Cooper, DeTemple, Genz, LoFaro, J. Lutz, Manoranjan, Mifflin, Millham, Moody, Pate, Schumaker, Saunders, Watkins, and Wollkind; Wang in Business Administration; Olsen in Electrical Engineering; Grantham, Burton, Chung, Plumb in Mechanical Engineering; Zollars, Chemical Engineering; Berryman, Forestry & Entomology.

**Mathematical Modeling Option Requirements**

Stat 443 should be taken to satisfy the statistics requirement for math majors.

Additional required courses for the Mathematical Modeling Option are:

- Math 340
- Math 415
- Math 440
- Math 448

It is strongly suggested that students take two additional courses from the following list:

- Math 364
- Math 441
- Math 464
- Math 417
- Stat 442 or Stat 530

A minor in an applied subject area, chosen in consultation with the advisor, is strongly recommended.

See Advisor for Checklist

**Operations Research** Option Description

Operations Research (OR) is concerned with scientifically deciding how best to design and operate man-machine systems, usually under conditions requiring the allocation of scarce resources. OR analysts typically develop or use a variety of mathematical methods to model a particular system. Specialists in this area are employed in industry, government, private consulting, and universities. Some analysts may be in staff organizations supporting top management, while others may be in line organizations directly involved with the management decisions.

The classical military and industrial applications of OR include inventory control, maintenance, and scheduling. More recent areas of use in the private sector are to be found in marketing, financial planning and exploration, and in the public sector, in public health, regional planning and educational systems. The most recent advances have been in such diverse fields as criminal justice, banking operations, population control, meteorology, energy development, ecological systems, and medical decision-making.

*Job Market Information:* Employment prospects and the whole area are expanding at an extraordinarily rapid rate. The report Outlook: 2000 released in April 1990 by the U.S. Department of Labor projects that employment opportunities for OR analysts would increase by 45 to 68 percent from 1988 to 2000. Many factors, such as the future need for better resource use and improved system design, suggest that demand will again exceed supply in the next decade. Increased use of OR studies in diverse areas is requiring more analysts. This expanded demand throughout the public and private sectors is also providing technical management opportunities as well as a training ground for senior management positions.

*Professional Information:* A 1990 survey by * OR/MS Today* reported the following respondent mean values:

- Age 41.8
- Years in the Field 14
- Salary $65,000
- Percent with Ph.D. 69

*Suggestions for the Major in the Operations Research Option:* For graduation and degree requirements, see the current college catalog. Supporting courses and part-time or summer jobs involving Computer Science, Statistics, Economics, Business Administration, and/or Engineering are strongly encouraged. A sample schedule of studies is on the back.

*Resource People: In the Mathematics Department:* Ariyawansa, Mifflin, Millham, Nazareth, and Saunders. Elsewhere on campus: M.C. Wang.

For further information see the booklet entitled Careers in OR published by the Operations Research Society of America and available in the Mathematics Department Office.

**
Sample Schedule of Studies
Operations Research Option
**

**Freshman Year**

*Fall*

Math 171 ([N]) (4 credits)

Gen Ed 110 (3)

Engl 101 ([W]) (3)

Bio Sci 102 ([B]) (4)

*Spring*

Math 172 (4)

Gen Ed 111 (3)

Cpt S 203 (3)

Math 220 (2)

Speech 102 ([C]) (3)

**Sophomore Year**

*Fall*

Math 273 (2)

Math 300 (3)

Phys 201 ([P]) (4)

Hum Elec (3)

Foreign Language or Elective (4 or 3)

Soc Sci (3)

*Spring*

Math 315 (3)

Math 364 (3)

Intercult (3)

Science (4 or 3)

Foreign Language or Elective (4 or 3)

**Junior Year**

*Fall*

Math 401 (3)

Math 325 (3)

Engl 402 (3)

Science (3)

Math/Stat 443 (3)

*Spring*

Math 402 (3)

Math 464 (3)

Hum Elec (3)

Math/Stat 444 (3)

CptS 405 (3)

Math 398 (1)

**Senior Year**

*Fall*

Math 420 (3)

Math 417 (3)

Hist 381 (3)

Math 453 (3)

Math 466 (3)

*Spring*

Math 421 (3)

Math 418 or Math 448 (3)

Hist 382 or Soc Sci or Hum (3)

Math/Stat 472, ??? (6)

**Operations Research Options Requirements**

Students selecting the option in Operations Research are required to take:

- Math 364
- Math 464

Additionally recommended courses are:

- Math 417
- Math 466
- Stat 472.

Other optional courses are:

- Math 325
- Math 448
- Stat 444
- Math 453
- Dec Sci 542

At least two of the above courses, in addition to 364 and 464 are required.

See Advisor for Checklist

**Secondary Mathematics Teaching** Option Description

Since most college students have recently been in high school mathematics classes the position of a secondary mathematics teacher is generally understood. Besides classroom assignments, however, this career can lead to other interesting and rewarding work for the successful teacher. Such opportunities might include "math lab" positions, mathematics chairpersons or consultants for buildings, districts or even states, textbook or other teaching media authorship, responsibilities in professional organizations, speaker at mathematics teacher conferences, and extension or night class teaching for continuing education programs.

*Job Market and Salary Information:* There is always a demand for persons qualified to teach mathematics in secondary schools. Salaries in public schools in the State of Washington vary from $20,000 to $22,000 for a new teacher with a B.A. or B.S. Typical teacher salaries are in the range of $20,000-$32,000 but some experienced teachers with advanced degrees earn as much as $40,000.

*Suggestions for the Major in the Secondary Teaching Option:* Anyone interested in secondary mathematics positions should prepare broadly (be able to sponsor activities, teach other subjects, coach athletics). Stay informed by using services offered by the Career Services. It is also a good idea to take advantage of opportunities for volunteer work such as tutoring, office work, etc., as this always strengthens one's credentials. The student-teaching experience is of utmost importance as the evaluations by the cooperating teacher, building administrator and university supervisor weighs heavily in hiring decisions.

There are two ways students at WSU can complete the mathematics requirements for certification to teach with a secondary mathematics major area. One is to complete the mathematics major as described in the current college catalog. (Be sure to note the suggested courses under the secondary education option.) The other method is through the General Studies program. The requirements for the mathematics major under the General Studies program are given under the Department of Education in the current college catalog. The General Studies program requires less mathematics than the full mathematics major and is designed to offer the opportunity for broader training.

A sample schedule of study is attached. The requirements for graduation given in the current college catalog should be studied carefully because that document, not this one, is the final authority.

*Resource People: In the Mathematics Department:* DeTemple, Jordan, Robertson, Wiser. For General Studies students: Coordinator of General Studies Programs in Biological, Mathematical and Physical Sciences, B. Lentz. In the Elementary and Secondary Education Department: Adams. State Supervisor of Mathematics Program, Old Capitol Building, Olympia 98504. Pullman High School: Dorian Drury. Your favorite high school teacher. Coordinator of Field Placement: Christine Sodorff.

**
Sample Schedule of Studies
Secondary Mathematics Teaching
**

**Freshman Year**

*Fall*

Math 171 (4 credits)

Gen Ed 110 (3)

Engl 101 ([W]) (3)

Bio Sci 102 (4)

*Spring*

Math 172 (4)

Gen Ed 111 (3)

Cpt S 153 (3)

Math 220 (2)

SpCom 102 (3)

**Sophomore Year**

*Fall*

Math 273 (2)

Math 300 (3)

Phys 201 (4)

Hum Elec (3)

Psych 105 (3)

El/Se 300 (1)

English 402 (3)

*Spring*

Math 315 (3)

Math 360 (3)

Intercult (3)

Science (4 or 3)

Ed Psych 301 (3)

**Junior Year**

*Fall*

Math 401 (3)

Math Elec (3)

Soc Sci (3)

Science (3)

El/Se 303 (3)

*Spring*

Math 398 (1)

Math 303 (3)

Hum Elec (3)

El/Se 450/451 (2)

*El/Se 317/318 (2)

*El/Se 328 (2)

*HEd 499 (1)

*(*Need to be taken together)*

**Senior Year**

*Fall*

Math 330 (3)

Math Elec (3)

Hist 381 (3)

ED Psych 402 (2)

El/Se 404 (3)

*Spring*

Math 320 or Math 421 (3)

Math Elec (3)

Hist 382 or Soc Sci or Hum (3)

Elec (6)

**Note:** Enrollment in El/Se courses above 300 requires separate application and formal admittance to the teacher preparation program. (Contact Teacher Education Student Services Center in Cleveland 252.) The above Schedule of Studies does not include the required 16 units of Student Teaching El/Se 415 which may extend the program to an additional semester. Also, one year of a foreign language may be required; check with your adviser.

**Secondary Mathematics Teaching Options Requirements**

Students taking the option in Secondary Mathematics Teaching are required to take:

- Math 330
- Math 303 (Math 303 may be substituted for Math 420)
- Math 360
- And a teaching minor (supporting endorsement).

Math 320 may be substituted for Math 421. CptS 153, BASIC, may be more useful than either CptS 203 (FORTRAN) or CptS 150 (C), and may be substituted.

Math 402 is not required.

The schedule of studies will also normally include expected courses such as:

- Psych 105
- SpCom 102
- El/Se 300
- Ed Psy 301
- El/Se 303
- El/Se 317/318
- El/Se 328
- H Ed 499
- Ed Psy 402
- El/Se 404
- El/Se 450/451
- El/Se 415

Upper division math electives should be math/stat courses other than Math 431, or 497.

See Advisor for Checklist

**Theoretical Mathematics** Option Description

(Previously - Core Mathematics Option)

In the past most students majoring in mathematics became either graduate students or teachers in secondary schools. Although some mathematics majors have always taken non-teaching jobs right after receiving the bachelor's degree, the B.S. or B.S. in mathematics was not usually considered a terminal degree for any profession but high school teaching.

The situation has changed considerably in the past twenty-five years or so. Especially in the period when computers existed but undergraduate departments of computer science did not, fresh B.A.'s and B.S.'s in mathematics were in demand for computer-related jobs. Even now a straight undergraduate mathematics program with suitable elective, especially in computer science, is still very good preparation for many jobs involving computing. Indeed, the traditional mathematics major (emphasizing analysis and algebra) with a well-considered set of electives, is good preparation for a variety of non-teaching careers. A mathematics major in this sense is what we mean by the "Core Mathematics Option". (Preparation for secondary teaching is covered by a separate option.)

Some students enjoy mathematics and would like a good general undergraduate education even though they may not have specific career plans. The core mathematics option is especially recommended to such students. Because of its sound mathematical content and the basic application of mathematics among so many disciplines, it leaves the graduate with many options. The numerous electives also allow great flexibility in planning an unusually broad undergraduate experience.

This option can also prepare one for graduate study in one of the mathematical sciences or even in other fields, such as economics, where a strong mathematical background is a great asset.

*Job Market and Salary Information.* Because of the great variety of possibilities, it is difficult to be precise about opportunities or beginning salaries. Nevertheless, a person with a new B.S. in core mathematics who is employed in industry is likely to start at $22,000-$28,000. Beginning salaries for those with a graduate degree naturally depend on the kind of graduate study done and which graduate degrees are earned. Specifically, those who continue studying "core" mathematics, earn a Ph.D., and go into college teaching, now begin at an average of about $38,000 for nine months. Someone with the same background who goes into twelve-month non-academic employment may start at about $40,000.

*Suggestions for the Major in the Theoretical Mathematics Option.* This option is not so much a single program as a framework of mainstream mathematics with many electives. The individual student is thus free to select electives to form a personal program especially suited to his or her interests and plans. For formal graduation and degree requirements, see the current college catalog.

*Resource people in the Math Department for Theoretical Math Option:* K. Cooper, S. Cooper, DeTemple, Johnson, Jordan, Kallaher, Kent, Kucera, Robertson, Webb, and Wiser.

**
Theoretical Mathematics
Options Requirements
**
(Previously Core Mathematics)

Students in the Theoretical Mathematics option are required to take Math 441 and at least two of:

- Math 302
- Math 303
- Math 325
- Math 453
- Math 464

Additionally they are required to take one of:

- Math 375
- Math 415

They are strongly encouraged to take at least two upper-division math courses beyond the minimum required for Math Majors.

See Advisor for Checklist

**
BACHELOR OF SCIENCE DEGREE
MATHEMATICS
**

**General Requirements** (Honors students also):

**Total Credits (2.0 gpa) 120 hr.**- including:
- Upper Division 40 hr.
- Foreign Language (2 years high school or 1 year college)
- Writing Portfolio and Assessment Exam
- Writing in the Major (M) 6 hr.

**Other Requirements** (non-Honors students):

**World Civilization**(A)- Gen Ed 110 3 hr.
- Gen Ed 111 3 hr.
**Arts, Humanities, Social Sciences (G, H, S, K, U) 15 hrs.**- including:
- Arts, Humanities (G, H) 3 hr.
- Social Sciences (S, K, U) 3 hr.

**Intercultural Studies (I, G, K.) 3 hr.****Communications Proficiency (C, W) 6 hr.**- including:
- Writing Placement Exam
- Written Communication (W) 3 hr.

**Sciences (B, P, U, Z) 12 hrs.**- including:
- Biological Sciences (B) 3 hr.
- Phys 201 (P) L 4 hr.
- Laboratories L 1 hr.

**Departmental Requirements***

(including Honors students)

- Math 171
- Math 172
- Math 220
- Math 273
- Math 300
- Math 315
- Math 360 or 443
- Math 398
- Math 401
- Math 402
- Math 420
- Math 421
- CptS 203
- English 402
- Physics 201
- Math Elective 1
- Math Elective 2
- Math Elective 3
- Math Elective 4

* A 2.0 gpa must be maintained in these classes.

Transfer students and students starting prior to Fall 1993 have slightly different requirements.

SEE ADVISOR FOR CHECKLIST

**
BACHELOR OF SCIENCE
MATHEMATICS SECONDARY EDUCATION
**

**General Requirements** (Honors students also):

**Total Credits (2.0 gpa) 120 hr.**- including:
- Upper Division 40 hr.
- Foreign Language (2 years high school or 1 year college)
- Writing Portfolio and Assessment Exam
- Writing in the Major (M) 6 hr.

**Other Requirements** (non-Honors students):

**World Civilization (A)**- Gen Ed 110 3 hr.
- Gen Ed 111 3 hr.
**Arts, Humanities, Social Sciences (G, H, S, K, U) 15 hrs.**- including:
- Arts, Humanities (G, H) 3 hr.
- Psych 105 3 hr.

**Intercultural Studies (I, G, K.) 3 hr.****Communications Proficiency (C, W) 6 hr.**- including:
- Writing Placement Exam
- Written Communication (W) 3 hr.
- Sp Com 102 (C) 3 hr.

**Sciences (B, P, U, Z) 12 hrs.**- including:
- Biological Sciences (B) 3 hr.
- Phys 201 (P) L 4 hr.
- Laboratories L 1 hr.

**Departmental Requirements***

(including Honors students)

- Math 171
- Math 172
- Math 220
- Math 273
- Math 300
- Math 315
- Math 303
- Math 320
- Math 330
- Math/Stat 360
- Math 398
- Math 401
- CptS 203
- English 402
- Math Elective 1
- Math Elective 2
- Math Elective 3

Education Requirements (Check with your education advisor)

* A 2.0 gpa must be maintained in these classes.

Transfer students and students starting prior to Fall 1993 have slightly different requirements.

SEE ADVISOR FOR CHECKLIST

**BACHELOR OF SCIENCE DEGREE
GENERAL STUDIES - MATHEMATICS EDUCATION
**

**General Requirements** (Honors students also):

**Total Credits (2.0 gpa) 120 hr.**- including:
- Upper Division 40 hr.
- Foreign Language (2 years high school or 1 year college)
- Writing Portfolio and Assessment Exam
- Writing in the Major (M) 6 hr.

**Other Requirements** (non-Honors students):

**World Civilization (A)**- Gen Ed 110 3 hr.
- Gen Ed 111 3 hr.
**Arts, Humanities, Social Sciences (G, H, S, K, U) 15 hrs.**- including:
- Arts, Humanities (G, H) 3 hr.
- Psych 105 3 hr.

**Intercultural Studies (I, G, K.) 3 hr.****Communications Proficiency (C, W) 6 hr.**- including:
- Writing Placement Exam
- Written Communication (W) 3 hr.
- Sp Com 102 (C) 3 hr.

**Sciences (B, P, U, Z) 12 hrs.**- including:
- Biological Sciences (B) 3 hr.
- Physical Sciences (P) L 4 hr.
- Laboratories L 1 hr.

**Departmental Requirements***

(including Honors students)

- Math 171
- Math 172
- Math 220
- Math 273
- Math 300
- Math 315
- Math 303
- Math 320
- Math 330
- Math 360 or 443
- Math 398
- CptS 203
- Math Elective 1

Education Requirements (Check with your education advisor)

* A 2.0 gpa must be maintained in these classes.

Transfer students and students starting prior to Fall 1993 have slightly different requirements.

SEE ADVISOR FOR CHECKLIST

Any university worthy of the name offers many things besides courses, degrees, spectator sports, and social amusements. It is a cultural center, sometimes the most active one for many miles around, and a sensible student will take advantage of many of the opportunities.

For example, WSU offers, in addition to its academic programs, athletic events, and social life,
such extracurricular opportunities as: clubs and other organizations catering to many interests;
lectures, stage shows, film series, concerts, and other such events; an excellent intramural program,
and athletic facilities for leisure time use; and, in the libraries, a fantastic collection of books,
periodicals, records, tapes, etc. to which you have virtually unlimited access. In particular, you
should take an occasional look in the Owen Science and Engineering Library. While the books and
periodicals that are kept there are primarily for advanced study and research, some of them are written
for - or even by - undergraduates. Among the periodicals, take a look (for example) at *The Pentagon*,
*The College Mathematics Teacher*, *The Mathematics Intelligencer*, *The Mathematics Teacher*, or
*The Mathematical Gazette*.

No matter how much you love your classes, you should do yourself a favor and occasionally enjoy some of these possibilities.

The Department of Pure and Applied Mathematics offers some special opportunities that might be
described better as *"cocurricular"* than as *"extracurricular"*. These include:

**Mathematics 499, Special Problems**. This carries variable credit (1-4) hour, and may be repeated. It provides an opportunity to pursue many kinds of special projects on your own, with faculty guidance. In spite of the number, this possibility is not limited to seniors. If you are interested, see a suitable faculty member, preferably at or before registration.

**Undergraduate Research**. Among the faculty research projects there are almost always some in which an undergraduate can take a meaningful role. (At times, occasionally with financial support from the National Science Foundation, research projects have been set up specifically for the benefit of undergraduate participants.) Such activities can yield credit, publications, stipends, a running start on graduate study or a career, and a great deal of personal satisfaction. If you are interested, ask a member of the mathematics faculty about possibilities.

**Scholarships and Awards**. The department has a number of scholarships and awards available to students at all levels. Contact Lynda Ballard (Neill 103) for more information. Juniors must have a 3.25 overall gpa and seniors a 3.00 gpa to be eligible for these positions. Applications are reviewed every semester.

**Undergraduate Bulletin Board**. A special bulletin board for undergraduates is located between Neill 107 and 111. This board has announcements of special events, scholarships, employment opportunities and other matters of interest to math majors.

**Undergraduate Teaching Assistantships**: From time to time the department is able to employ qualified undergraduates to assist in teaching elementary courses. Students who have done this have often reported that they have found it satisfying and even exciting, and there is money attached. Juniors must have a 3.25 overall gpa and seniors a 3.00 gpa to be eligible for these positions. Applications are reviewed every semester. If you are interested, see Dawn Wisniew (Neill 107).

**Tutoring**: Students in distress are sometimes willing to pay more advanced and presumably more successful students to help them study. The Department cannot be formally involved in these arrangements, but does maintain a list of students who are willing to tutor. If you would like to be on the list, there is a form you will need to complete in the department office.

**College Modeling Contest**: In February of each year there is a national competition in applied mathematics called the College Modeling Contest. Teams of three students spend a weekend attempting to solve a "real world" applied problem. The group's solution is submitted to a national panel of judges. The best solutions get publicized. If you are interested, see Professor Robert Mifflin.

**Putnam Competition**: Each year in December the Mathematical Association of America sponsors a mathematical problem-solving competition called the William Lowell Putnam Competition. High scores carry considerable prestige and sometimes cash prizes. For a number of years WSU has groomed students for this competition and they have done well. If you are interested, see Professor William Webb.

**Hacker Reading Room**: Mathematics majors are invited to use the Hacker Reading Room (Neill 216) for studying and socializing from 8:00 a.m. to 4:30 PM Monday through Friday.

Answers to many questions about courses, academic regulations, university policies and procedures, etc., will be found in the current WSU Bulletin (Catalog), Time Schedule, and (sometimes) the Catalog Supplement. The Time Schedule includes much more information than the title might lead you to expect. In particular, the university's "Academic Regulations" appear in each fall issue.

If you have a question about a specific course, whether or not you are currently enrolled in it, ask the instructor. If you have questions about schedules, office hours, drops/adds/withdrawals and the like, ask in the departmental office (Neill 103). And by all means, whenever you have questions or problems that require the personal touch, ask you advisor. If all else fails, see the department chair.

As graduation approaches, you will be thinking more and more seriously about the future. Specifically, you will probably be thinking about jobs and/or graduate schools.

In connection with jobs, you will find much interesting information in the booklet Professional Opportunities in the Mathematical Sciences which is published by the Mathematical Association of America and revised frequently. You can usually get a copy in the departmental office.

On campus, the people in the Career Services Office (Ad Annex 107) are eager to help at all stages, from preliminary identification of your own special aptitudes and goals to scheduling interviews with recruiters from possible employers. There are many places where you can look for short-term or part-time jobs on and off campus. Good places to begin are the Temporary Employment Office (French 126) and the office of the Professional Experience Program (Ad Annex 206).

The most useful compilation of information on U.S. and Canadian graduate programs in the mathematical sciences is the annual "Special Issue: Assistantships and Fellowships in the Mathematics Sciences" of Notices of the American Mathematical Society, which appears in December. The Owen Science Library usually has several copies and often you can borrow one from a faculty member who regularly receives the Notices. Members of the mathematics faculty can often give you first-hand information about graduate programs you may be considering.

You should not wait until you senior year to get acquainted with these valuable resources.

In any case, no later than early in the fall of your senior year, you should get together with your adviser to talk about your plans for life after graduation.